Diabetes Education



Many medical experts worry that there is a global diabetes epidemic; this insidious health condition is on the rise in developed countries.


What is Diabetes?


According to the eminent Consultant and Authority on Diabetes, Dr. Felix Burden of Birmingham, England 29.2 million children and adults are affected with Diabetes in the United States alone. And 1.4 million new cases of diabetes are diagnosed every year.


I have had the pleasure of knowing Felix when he was treating and monitoring my Mum who had Type 2 Diabetes for nearly 27 years.

I have known Felix both professionally and socially through my endeavours as District Governor of Lions Clubs International when we organise Diabetes Screening Days in our local Doctors Surgeries in my home town.


Diabetes is referred to as "a chronic disease characterised by high levels of sugar (Glucose) in the blood"


How does this happen?


Glucose enters the blood stream from the food we eat. This is later used for fuel in the body. Our pancreas located next to the stomach makes insulin, which plays a role in moving glucose to muscles, liver cells and fat.


The pancreas then fail to make enough insulin for the muscle or...


Fat or liver cells fail to respond to the insulin properly.


As a result our body's cells are starving for energy and over time,

high blood glucose levels change our overall health, damaging the

kidney, heart, eyes and nerves.

Symptoms of Diabetes

High blood levels of glucose

Blurry vision



Painful urination

Frequent urination

Sores that do not heal

Nausea and Vomiting

Weight Loss


In some cases there are no symptoms at all



Granulated Sugars are

the biggest culprit

There are 4 major types of Diabetes:

1/. Type 1 Diabetes


⇒  Usually diagnosed in childhood


⇒  Affected by hereditary


⇒  Sometimes there are no symptoms


⇒  Imperative to inject insulin daily because

      the body makes little or no insulin 


⇒  Frequently called the "Insulin needed" group


  Patients with type 1 diabetes need insulin

      daily to survive




Insulin Injection and


2/. Type 2 Diabetes


⇒  Most common type of Diabetes


⇒   Usually occurs in adulthood but diagnosis

     is increasing in the younger generation 


 Affects many children


⇒  Body is incapable of responding  to insulin


 Rates rising due to increased obesity

      and failure to exercise and eat healthy




Eating the right kind

of food

3/. Gestational Diabetes


⇒  Blood sugar levels are high during pregnancy         in women


⇒  Women who gave birth to children over 9lbs


⇒  High risk of type 2 diabetes and

     cardiovascular disease


4/. Pre-Diabetes


⇒  At least 79 million people are

      diagnosed with pre-diabetes

      each year


⇒  Above average glucose levels

      not enough to be classified

      under type 1 or 2 diabetes


⇒  Long term damage to body,

      includingHeart and Circulatory



⇒  Usually starts with unhealthy

      eating habits and inadequate


Exercise is very

necessary for Diabetics


Diabetes Type 1 and Type 2 symptoms are closely similar, although, Type 1 is

often worse in severity. 

How Does Diabetes Transmit?

Genetically -


Type 1 Diabetes,


and Gestational Diabetes

Can develop due to poor

diet and inadequate exercise -


Pre-Diabetes, Type 2 Diabetes

and Gestational Diabetes


Diabetes develops due to the following factors:diabetes-1326964__180


Being Overweight, High Blood Pressure, High Cholesterol Levels,

Family history of Diabetes, Family history of Gestational Diabetes.


Statistics show that African - Americans, Asian - Americans,

Latino, Hispanic - Americans and Native Americans have a

greater disposition to Diabetes.

Testing for Diabetes



There are two tests Doctors and Physicians use for diagnosis of Diabetes and Pre-Diabetes.


1/. HbA1c Blood test

The term HbA1c refers to glycated haemoglobin. It develops when haemoglobin, a protein within red blood cells that carries oxygen throughout your body, joins with glucose in the blood, becoming 'glycated'.

By measuring glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), clinicians are able to get an overall picture of what our average blood sugar levels have been over a period of weeks/months.

For people with diabetes this is important as the higher the HbA1c, the greater the risk of developing diabetes-related complications.

HbA1c is also referred to as haemoglobin A1c or simply A1c.


HbA1c mmol/mol %
Normal Below 42 mmol/mol Below 6.0%
Prediabetes 42 to 47 mmol/mol 6.0% to 6.4%
Diabetes 48 mmol/mol or over 6.5% or over



2/. Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT)


 Idea is to measure how well your body reacts to an

average dose of sugar

 Blood is drawn from the patient 2 hours before and

after he/she drinks a pre-mixed beverage with sugar

 Blood glucose levels are measured to determine how the

body reacted

 Blood glucose range will be between 140 - 199 mg/dL

for pre-diabetics

 For those with type 2 diabetes the range will start at

200 mg/dL and continue to peak


How to Prevent and Control Diabetes 


 Prevention all starts with a better Lifestyle

 Eating healthier

 Being active

 Taking medicine as directed

 Taking care of your body

 Looking after your feet

 Taking care of your teeth

 Control High Blood Pressure

 No Smoking (Stop completely)

 Regular check-ups with your doctor.

 Have blood sugars checked regularly

 Check blood sugars at home daily


Monitor your Blood Pressure regularly

How does Diabetes Affect the Body ?

Diabetes can affect :






Nervous System




Whole Body

male body under X-rays. isolated on black

Long term complications includeStroke, Peripheral Vascular Disease, Hyper-Tension, Urinary Infections

and Coronary Artery Disease.


The most frequent health risk from diabetes is known as Cardiovascular Disease. ( Diabetes can cause High Blood Pressure that then causes an even stronger resistance to Insulin)


Diabetes lowers your good Cholesterol and raises your bad Cholesterol leading to an increase of

Heart Disease and Stroke. This can cause your arteries to become clogged with fat.


At least 65% of people with diabetes die from Heart Disease or Stroke.

Can Diabetes be cured?


#  Unfortunately there is not yet a cure for Diabetes

#  But do not give up hope! There are new facts and discoveries being made everyday

#  Doctors  are providing treatments that can lower symptoms of Diabetes of all types, which can reduce pain

#  By following a good diet and exercise plan, body may be able to use Insulin minimally or none at all in cases besides Type 1 Diabetes

#  There is also research being done on "Islet" transplantation

Islet Transplantation


During this procedure, Islets (Clusters of cells from the pancreas that help make Insulin) are taken from the pancreas of a deceased organ donor. Then the Islets are purified, processed and transferred to some one else. These then begin to make and release Insulin individually.


This could possibly be the biggest step in helping patients with type 1 Diabetes live without Insulin Injections.

We wish to acknowledge the fact that majority of the content within the Diabetes Education section of this website is courtesy Dr. Felix Burden and we thank him for this.